How to choose the right modern industrial lighting for your company?

Light is becoming increasingly important in the industrial sector.

The reasons: modern industrial lighting is able to cut operating costs due to state-of-the-art, energy-efficient lighting technology, improve visual conditions and help concentration with Human Centric Lighting and simultaneously improve productivity and operating safety, as well as protecting the environment by integration into control networks. Another aspect to consider is that legislative regulations are becoming increasingly stringent.

In the face of this, many industrial companies search for a qualified partner to exploit the potential of modern lighting systems rapidly, reliably and as simply as possible. Companies expecting more from their industrial LED luminaires than simple compliance with current standards see TUBU as a specialist for the complete spectrum of requirements – ranging from production bays and warehouses to corridors and office workstations in management environments.

Manufacturing

In production areas, light must first and foremost enable safe and error-free work. For the lighting solution, this means that a sufficient brightness level with high uniformity and as few reflections and shadows as possible is a basic requirement. The more intricate the task, the more and better the light required. In addition to general lighting, special precision work requires workplace-related luminaires in order to be able to carry out the respective work step smoothly.

At the same time, the luminaires themselves must be equipped for particularly demanding environments with heat, cold, dust or moisture. Appropriate protection classes and materials ensure adequate, long-lasting use in industrial applications. Particularly strict regulations apply in the food industry with high hygiene and quality standards. TUBU offers industrial lighting meets the standard of International Featured Standards (IFS), with particularly good color rendering and protection against breakage and chipping, for example.

Lighting concepts that focus on people go one step further than purely normative specifications. Dynamic, biologically effective light ensures greater well-being for employees by using light colors to support concentration and regeneration.

Featured products for manufacturing.

TUBU Low Glare LED High Bay Light

HiClean UFO LED HIGH BAY

TUBU Food Processing LED High Bay Light

 

Warehouse & logistics

In warehouses, every space must be used well. This leads to narrow aisles with sometimes very high shelves on both sides. There is no question that high-bay warehouses are practical and economical, but difficult to illuminate. For this purpose, TUBU has developed luminaires with coordinated light distributions that distribute their light evenly all the way down and ensure that goods are easily identifiable with sufficiently high vertical illuminance levels.

In view of the fact that storage areas are usually only used for short periods of time, the integration of sensors is also an option. Intelligent solutions from TUBU detect when employees are in the aisles and automatically regulate the lighting. This saves cash.

In logistics zones with forklift traffic, man meets machine and interior meets exterior. The lighting design must take into account possible daylight as well as sufficient visibility to ensure safety at work for forklift drivers and employees.

With flexible solutions from TUBU, which combine basic lighting with point-directed solutions and switch artificial light sensor-based depending on the available daylight, individual, efficient solutions are created.

Featured products for Warehouse & logistics

industrial high bay led lighting

TUBU LED High Bay Light with integrated Sensor

 

best lighting for garage workshop

TUBU LED Linear High Bay Light

 

How much do you know about WINE AND CHAMPAGNE CELLARS Lighting Solution?

Cellars demand lighting solutions that take care of wine and champagne natural properties.

 

 

The challenges

 

Photo-sensitivity

Wine and champagne are negatively affected by natural light and fluorescent or halogen lamps, due to UV rays and heat. This is why cellars and bottles are usually dark.

 

Riboflavin

During alcoholic fermentation, yeasts produce riboflavin. Part of the energy emitted by the light source is absorbed by riboflavin, which triggers chemical reactions. How does light affect wine and champagne through riboflavin?

 

How does light affect wine and champagne through riboflavin?

 

Color

It causes progressive discoloration, so wine and champagne may become colorless.
OLFACTORY AND VISUAL PROPERTIES Sensory characteristics can be modified, and flavors that reduce aromatic or fruity characters appear.
 

Aging

It causes new compounds that contribute to light-struck taste and atypical aging, with an accumulative effect.

 

UV radiation

LED technology does not emit UV rays, but their blue wavelengths are harmful because the riboflavin spectrum has an absorption peak at 440 nm (between violet and blue), which can increase negative effects.

The absence of UV radiation and blue wavelength benefits the storage of wines.

 

Cool areas

Temperatures are higher than 21ºC cause premature aging and flat aromas and flavors.

LED light sources do not generate significant heat, so they contribute to a cool ambient while improving their lifetime.

Humidity and dust Wines are stored at cellars with 50-80% humidity during long times, so bottles accumulate dust.

Sealed luminaires protected against the income of solid and liquid elements last long and ensure light quality.

 

Safety

In working areas, it is needed to combine the protection of the wines with worker’s safety and comfort. The light must guarantee maximum visual comfort, flicker-free, and low glare, to avoid visual fatigue and allow the identification of a clear risk.

 

“Wine in a white bottle exposed to direct fluorescence light can suffer deviations of its sensory profile between 1 and 3 hours”

 

The Solution

  • The right light level and color protect wine and champagne against riboflavin effects from photosensitivity.
  • Robust and long-lasting luminaires are appropriate to humid and dirty environments.
  • LED technology contributes to keeping a cool ambient temperature in cellars.
  • Luminaires with easy mounting reduce installation and maintenance costs.

 

The Product

TUBU offers the Certified specific lighting below. 

 

TUBU Tubular Wine Cellar Light L9-G

  • The specific 590nm amber LED module protects wine and champagne against riboflavin effects from photosensitivity
  • Certified by the Champagne Committee under the requirements of amber luminaire qualification protocol for bottle storage.
  • Qualified by an independent laboratory under ISO 17025 for EN13032-4
  • 20W 40W 60W
  • L70>54,000 hours
  • IK10 IP67 IP69K
  • CE RoHS CB
  • -25℃~+40℃
  • 5 Year Warranty

 

TUBU Wine Cellar Light F1-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • The specific 590nm amber LED module protects wine and champagne against riboflavin effects from photosensitivity
  • Certified by the Champagne Committee under the requirements of amber luminaire qualification protocol for bottle storage.
  • Qualified by an independent laboratory under ISO 17025 for EN13032-4
  • 60W 80W 100W 120W 150W 200W
  • L70>54,000 hours
  • IK10 IP65
  • CE RoHS
  • -25℃~+45℃
  • 5 Year Warranty

 

If you’re looking for a qualified lighting solution for wine and champagne cellars, you can contact us for more details below.

Tel : +86-755-28261690

Tel : +86-755-84615006

E-mail: sales@tu-bu.com

Skype/Wechat: maggiezhang0505

 

What is UGR19 Anti-glare LED Light?

UGR19 stands for Unified Glare Rating of 19 or less, which is a parameter of how bright a luminaire is in a sample room layout, and is particularly important in office spaces where workers have to spend many hours a day and would be using display terminals for a large proportion of that time.

The higher the UGR number the higher the glare from the luminaire and the increased discomfort for office workers. The glare can cause health and safety issues and welfare problems such as headaches, migraines, and eyesight issues. The light fitting alone cannot be UGR19 compliant as it is not a characteristic of a luminaire but is a measure of how it performs in a physical space.

The UGR rating helps to determine how likely a luminaire is to cause discomfort to those around it. For example, the discomfort that a LED Panel will cause the workforce within an office. This classification ranges from 5 to 40, with low numbers indicating low glare.

Glare is a common problem in workplaces. Inappropriate luminaires cause excessive brightness to be ‘bounced off’ reflective surfaces, such as computer screens, whiteboards, etc. This can cause disruption for the occupants of offices, in terms of headaches & eye trouble, which can then lead to employee absences.

Calculating UGR

UGR is calculated by using an equation that takes into account a number of factors that may contribute to glare caused by a luminaire, such as the angle of the luminaire, the likelihood of glare and the luminance value (lumen output). The equation that is used to calculate the UGR is:

L= The luminance value of the luminaire

Lb= The value of the background luminance

ω= The solid angle of the luminaire that is seen by the viewer

p= The Guth Index. Based on the likelihood of glare, also known as Visual Comfort Probability

Σ= Shows that the equation (shown above) includes all the fittings located within the area.

Methods for reducing glare:

There are two methods to reduce the glare that is present in relation to interior lighting: firstly, to use luminaires that are UGR<19 rated; secondly to ensure that the lighting design is appropriate for the environment they are being used in i.e. the correct number and position of luminaires.

Within an office setting, for the luminaire to be classified as “low glare” it must have a UGR below 19 at desk level. Anything above this may cause discomfort – this further enforces the need for high-quality interior lighting that is rated UGR<19.

There are a number of different UGR limits that should not be exceeded in certain environments, these include:

 

How can TUBU help?

 

TUBU offers free expert lighting designs to make sure that the correct type and number of luminaires are being used within a certain area.

 

TUBU Anti-glare UGR19 UGR22 Tubular Light IP67 IP69K

TUBU Anti-glare UGR19 UGR22 LED Linear High Bay Light IP65

best lighting for garage workshop

TUBU Anti-glare UGR19 UGR22 LED Round High Bay Light IP65

 

For more information about low glare lighting or any other lighting advice contact us on +86-84615006 or email sales@tu-bu.com.

 

 

 

IP69 LED luminaires

New ip69 LED lights released

IP69 is the highest ranking on the Ingress Protection rating scale, which means it has a very high protection against liquids and solids leaking into industrial devices. Products with higher IP ratings are designed to work better in harsh environments.

Various manufacturing industries, such as food, beverage, or pharmaceutical, have strict regulations in place in order to maintain a high level of sanitation and cleanliness and prevent the growth of potentially harmful bacteria. These rigid rules create an environment that is frequently subjected to high-pressure washdowns.

IP69 LED luminaires

 

Tech specs
Model No                                        TBL92F-20W                       TBL94F-40W                     TBL95F50W                       TBL95F60W
Input Power                                           20W                                      40W                                  50W                                    60W
Dimension                                     552 * Ø75mm                   1152 * Ø75mm                 1452 * Ø75mm                 1452 * Ø75mm
CCT                                                                                                      4000K & 5000K & 6000K
CRI                                                                                                                      >80
Power Factor                                                                                                     >0.9
IP Grade                                                                                                             IP65
Input Voltage                                                                                      AC200-240VAC (50/60Hz)
Luminous                                                                                                         130lm/W / 150lm/W
Beam Angle                                                                                                        120˚
Working Temp                                                                                               -40˚~40˚ C
Warranty                                                                                                          5 Years
L90                                                                                                                  >54,000hrs

Features

  • IP69K / IP69
  • Impact resistance PMMA IK06 / PC IK10
  • Gas-proof,against ammonia and sulphurous vapours
  • Anti-ammonia
  • Against water pressure of 100bar(1450psi) and temperature of 80°C
  • System efficiency up to 130lm/W & 150lm/W option
  • High CRI >80 • UGR<19 option
  • Environmentally friendly, no mercury, No UV, No IR
  • Wide beam angle 120°
  • Energy Efficiency Grade: A+
  • Quick Start instant 100% luminous flux
  • 5 Year Warranty on complete fixture. (LED’s, Driver, & Housing)
  • Certificate: CE,CB,RoHs ,IK10,IP69K,Certified
  • Surface Mount or Suspended

 

tubular LED tri-proof light fixture IP68 IP69K

What is the IP69K LED tri proof light?

IP (International Protection Standard) is a term defined by DIN VDE 0470 and DIN 40 050.
These standards give a classification of the degree of protection of electrical equipment enclosures when the rated voltage does not exceed 72.5 KV.

The details are as follows:
1. Personal protection.
2. Protection of electrical equipment to prevent the entry of solid materials including dust.
3. Protection of electrical equipment to prevent damage caused by water to equipment.

 

tubular LED tri-proof light fixture IP68 IP69K

IP code explanation

An IP code consists of the letters “IP” and two digits. The first digit is 0 to 6, and the second digit is 0 to 9 or 9K:

IP67: Soaking in water from 15 cm to 1 m deep for 30 minutes prevents water from entering.

IP68: Under the conditions specified by the supplier, it is continuously immersed in water to prevent water from entering.

IP69K: Capable of withstanding the thermal steam wash test defined in EN 60529 and DIN 40050-9. This provides protection against water pressures of 100 bar (1450 psi) and temperature of 80oC. The pressure is applied directly to the sensor at progressive angles of 30 degrees (0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees) for 30 seconds at each angle for a total of 120 seconds (2 minutes) to prevent water ingress.
These IP protection levels are often not properly understood or applied incorrectly. For example, many users believe that the IP67 or IP68 protection class allows the device to function properly while the water is within the specified time. This is not the case. These levels of protection only guarantee that the equipment will still function properly after it has been removed from the water.
Another possible misunderstanding is that meeting IP69K means automatically meeting IP67 and IP68. In fact, IP69K can only protect against flushing pressure and is not suitable for applications that are submerged in water. Therefore, the IP69K protection class is often used in applications where cleaning is often performed, such as in breweries, car washes, and food and beverage plants, but is not suitable for use where the equipment is completely submerged in water.

glare free

How to develop high-value and practical LED linear light?

In addition to considering the value of the LED linear light fixture,the development of the the LED linear light also considers the optical technical requirements of the product, the stability of the product, and the intelligence.

Optical requirements

 

The basis of light is the “core”: the chip LED determines the quality of the light output of the lamp. It is very important to choose which chip matching. Choosing the LED and the demand parameter standard is the basis and purity to ensure the light quality of the “core” piece, for example You can choose a low-power SMD chip, or the
current hot EMC3030, or an old and strong high-power 3535 package LED lamp bead, which is a matter of learning, and the choice of LED lamp beads should be chosen. Which technical parameter area and so on, which will determine the technical direction of the luminaire and the market sales positioning pattern. Office lighting
standard Ra ≥ 80, then some high-demand office buildings may need to meet 9050 (Ra90, R9 50), if it is industrial warehouse lighting, I think if you want Ra80/90, it is a waste, the standard requirements to reach Ra ≥ 70 is fine. Because the light efficiency of the LED lamp bead is inversely proportional to the Ra parameter, the higher the Ra, the more light efficiency is sacrificed, so the most important is the most suitable.

UGR16

 

Light control

Optics is the light control magician of the luminaire. It is a tool for controlling the divergence direction and light intensity distribution of the light emitted by the LED lamp bead. It is commonly known as the magic light control magician. Optical components, whether they are lenses or reflectors, must be combined with the matching LED bead to make sense. So when choosing a scene application and choosing a lighting solution, LEDs and optics must be considered together, and what kind of solution can be used to achieve the lighting effect we want. Then consider the light distribution, efficiency and anti-glare requirements on this basis. According to the IES EN12464-1 standard, the general office scene can meet UGR < 19, preferably UGR < 16, of course, if the glare value of a scene can control UGR < 10, then we basically think that there is no glare.

glare free

 

Light stability and intelligence

The first two aspects are done, and the stability and ductility of the luminaires are particularly important. A large part of the life of the luminaire is determined by the choice and use of the electrical appliance, and the right cost-effective lighting appliances are selected to provide reasonable life and stability for the luminaire. Modern office lighting applications should also consider smart applications, so the choice of smart solutions and product scalability must also be considered in this link. As for which intelligent mode to choose, it can be determined according to specific needs and applications.

The need for energy saving: energy saving of lamps or system energy saving is not an independent individual, but is the result of the combination of various combination units. The light efficiency of the LED lamp bead, the effective utilization of the optical device, the power factor of the electrical appliance and the intelligent dimming system constitute a comprehensive energy-saving product, which constitutes the low-energy and energy-saving building project of the whole project.

The above summary of these points is also the current market trend and technical points of linear lighting, grasping the application direction, refining the needs of light scenes, using advanced LED technology and good light distribution, combined with popular intelligent lighting, serious research and development High-value original industrial design and luminaire shape details, then this linear lighting fixture must be a high-quality product with strong vitality and recognition. With the explosion of office lighting, industrial lighting is updated. With the rise of warehousing lighting, it is foreseeable that linear luminaires will be a blue ocean.

halogen lamps led replacement

The EU banned the sale of non-directional household tungsten halogen lamps from September 1

From September 1st, 2018, the sixth phase of the (EC) 244/2009 requirements of the European Union’s ErP Directive (Energy-related Products, the eco-design requirements for energy-related products) will be effective. Certain types of low-efficiency non-directional household tungsten halogen lamps are no longer available in the EU market.

 

halogen lamps led replacement

 

This means that from September 1st, tungsten halogen lamps sold in the EU market will have only low-efficiency B-class low-pressure tungsten halogen lamps and energy-efficient C-class G9 or R7s lamps.

To further explain, not all tungsten halogen lamps will be banned, but mainly for pear-shaped transparent glass bulbs for ordinary lighting that cannot meet the energy efficiency requirements of the instructions, which is what we often call “bubbling bubbles”. . Tungsten halogen lamps for special lighting, such as oven lamps; directional halogen lamps, such as Mr series, Par series, etc.; G9 lamp single-ended tungsten halogen lamps and R7s lamp tungsten halogen lamps (ie common double-ended tungsten halogen lamps), etc. Not affected.

It should be noted that this prohibition does not apply to related products already on the store shelves and in the warehouse.

The original phase 6 requirements of (EC) 244/2009 came into effect on September 1, 2016, and then, under the recommendation of the European Lighting Association (Lighting Europe), the European Commission’s new (EU) 2015/1428 regulations The effective date is pushed back two years to September 1 this year.

the simulation with LED linear high bay

LED linear high bay is the trend of industrial lighting

Let’s talk about the trends and trends of industrial lighting. Everyone knows that ten years ago, most of our market products were large barrels of metal halide lamps, top square or round metal boxes, and better industrial lighting die-cast aluminum fin-type electrical boxes. works. The large 18-inch spinning aluminum reflector is hung below. The initial LED high bay light is the same as the metal halide lamp, just a light source. Next, I think it can be regarded as the age of the ufo mining lamp. This UFO LED high bay is also magical. It turned out to be a hit, and I couldn’t find the source.

the simulation with LED linear high bay

The simulation with LED linear high bay

However, this UFO LED high bay still does not get rid of the shadow of the traditional high bay light, the shortcomings of the application and the lack of light applications still make it slowly decline. UFO is still not good for many occasions, especially a large amount of storage lighting and high bay lighting in the low and medium spaces. At this time, the LED linear high bay fixture is slowly squeezed in with its slim slim body and flexible application, with professional optical applications. The linear lighting slowly took to the front of the Frankfurt exhibition and European lighting applications.

For large space areas such as open warehouses, lighting is required to be illuminance, uniformity and energy saving. In this kind of scene, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, 120 degrees, etc. are selected according to the height, and the circular symmetrical light distribution is targeted. Linear lighting fixtures will be the best solution.

If you encounter this kind of shelf-type warehouse space, the lighting design should be different.

Elliptical strip light distribution lamps will be the best choice. Relatively circular light distribution lamps use elliptical light distribution in this scenario, the lamp power demand is reduced by at least 30%, and the warehouse usually has a very bright lighting time every day. Long, the electricity bill saved every day will be a large amount. You can save the cost of the lamp in less than two years, so it is especially advantageous for the energy-saving renovation project and the ppp project. After all, the savings are earned. of.

full spectrum led grow light

LED grow light manufacturer must know the knowledge

Various plants survive in a unique geographical environment, including sunlight, temperature, altitude and soil. They have formed a unique flowering and breeding response strategy in the evolution of the natural environment of hundreds of millions of years, which is to limit the flowering season to a suitable The period to ensure that the offspring can grow and develop smoothly, this is the photoperiod of plants. Most plants gradually adapt to the rhythm of the natural light environment during the natural selection and evolution process, forming a distinct seasonality of optimal reproduction. Studies have shown that photoperiod is an important environmental factor for inducing plant flowering, summarizing and analyzing the regularity of plant breeding performance, in order to improve the output efficiency of facility agriculture and promote the healthy development of agricultural planting industry.

The photoperiod is an important inducer of plant flowering. This paper summarizes the specific application of photoperiod in flowering of plants through the analysis of plant photoperiod physiological pathways, and points out that other environmental factors should be considered in the application, which provides useful ideas for the efficient development of plant agriculture flower planting industry. It also provides a scientific basis for LED manufacturers to produce plant growth lamps and control design.

 

full spectrum led grow light

Full spectrum LED grow light

 

Plant flowering photoperiod physiological pathway

 

Plant leaves sense photoperiod signals that conduct this flowering stimuli to the growth point of the stem tip. Photosensitive pigments and cryptochromes participate in this pathway as photoreceptors, and the flowering organs are controlled by gene expression to complete flowering control. Higher plants have at least three types of photoreceptors: sensitizing pigments that sense red and far-red light, and cryptochromes and photosensitizers that absorb ultraviolet (UV-A) and blue light.

 

 

Plant photoperiod response type

 

The transition from simple vegetative growth to nutrient and reproductive growth is a major turning point in plant life, and its importance is the continuation of the plant species itself. In 1920, W. W. Garner and H. A. Allard proposed the concept that the plant itself can measure the length of sunshine and can sense the season according to it, which is now called the photoperiod phenomenon.

 

In a certain developmental period, plants can be divided into long-day plants (abbreviated as LDP), short-day plants (short-day plants, abbreviated as SDP), and Japanese-negative plants according to the type of response to the length of sunshine. Day-neutralplant, abbreviated as DNP). LDP is a plant that must be lighted longer than a certain number of hours per day and can bloom after a certain number of days. Such as winter wheat, barley, rapeseed, fairy, sweet-scented osmanthus and sugar beet, etc., and the longer the illumination time, the earlier the flowering. SDP is a plant that must bloom for less than a certain number of hours per day. If the light is properly shortened, it can be flowered in advance, but if the light is extended, it will delay flowering or flowering. Such as rice, cotton, soybeans, tobacco, begonia, chrysanthemum, morning glory and cocklebur. DNP refers to plants that can bloom under any sunshine conditions, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, rose and Clivia.

 

Key issues in the application of plant flowering photoperiod regulation

 

1.plant critical day length

The critical day length of a plant refers to the longest sunshine that can be tolerated by short-day plant flowering during the day and night cycle or the shortest sunshine necessary to induce flowering of long-day plants. For LDP, the daily length is greater than the critical day length, and even 24 hours can be flowered. However, for SDP, the length of day must be less than the critical length to bloom, but too short to bloom. The Institute of Semiconductors of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Baoding Dazheng Company should fully consider the chrysanthemum as the SDP factor in the edible chrysanthemum supplement project of Beijing Huitian Agricultural Cooperative.

 

2.Plant flowering key and artificial control of photoperiod

SDP flowering is determined by the length of the dark period and does not depend on the length of time of illumination. The length of sunshine required for LDP flowering is not necessarily longer than the length of daylight required for SDP flowering.

 

Knowing the key types of plant flowering and photoperiod response, you can extend or shorten the length of sunshine in the greenhouse, control the flowering period, and solve the problem of no flowering. Artificial extension of light can accelerate the flowering of long-day plants, and appropriately shorten the light, which can promote the flowering of short-day plants early. If you want to delay flowering or not flowering, you can reverse the operation. If the long-day plant is cultivated in the tropics, it will not bloom due to insufficient light. Similarly, the cultivation of short-day plants in the temperate zone and the cold zone will not bloom due to the long time of illumination.

 

3.introduction, breeding work

 

The artificial control of plant photoperiod is of great significance for the introduction and breeding of plants. For SDP, the northern seeds are introduced into the south, and they must be flowered in advance, requiring late-maturing varieties. Similarly, the southern species move northward and require early maturing varieties; for LDP, the northern seeds are introduced into the south, and it is necessary to delay flowering and require early maturing varieties. Similarly, the southern species move northward and require late-maturing varieties. For example, the genus Roselle is a SDP, and if the southern species moves northward, the vegetative growth period is prolonged. The bud, flowering, and seeding period are lagging, and it is very vulnerable to early frost damage. At this time, it should be known that shading treatment is required.

 

4.flowering induction of red light and far red light

 

Photofrin mainly receives red (Pr) and far red (Pfr) signals, affecting plant flowering induction. The flowering effect is not determined by the absolute amount of Pr and Pfr, but by the Pfr/Pr ratio. SDP is flowered at a lower Pfr/Pr ratio, while the formation of LDP flower stimulating substances requires a relatively high Pfr/Pr ratio. If the dark period is interrupted by red light, the ratio of Pfr/Pr is increased, which suppresses SDP flowering. The requirement of LDP for Pfr/Pr ratio is not as strict as SDP, but long enough illumination time, relatively high irradiance and far red light illumination are essential for inducing LDP flowering.

 

Problem discussion

1.vernalization and temperature environmental factors

The process of inducing plant flowering at low temperature is called vernalization. Vernalization plays an important role in flower induction as well as photoperiod. After germination of seeds or low temperature treatment of plants, the content of gibberellin in the body increases, which is a comprehensive consideration when using photoperiod to treat flowers.

 

In the photoperiod phenomenon, in addition to the dominant factor, other environmental factors such as temperature also affect the flowering induction of plants. Lowering the night temperature allows the LDP to induce flowering under shorter sunlight, while allowing the SDP to bloom under longer sunlight. For example, beets usually bloom under long days of sunshine, but at a low night temperature of 10 to 18 ° C, 8 hours of sunshine can also form flowers. The morning glory is short-lived at 21 to 23 ° C, but at 13 ° C low temperature. It is characterized by long-term nature.

 

2.photoperiod induction

 

When a certain physiological age is reached, the plant is treated with a suitable photoperiod of sufficient number of days, and even after an unfavorable photoperiod, the stimulating effect can be maintained and flowered.

The relationship between geographical environment and photoperiod

 

Most of the short-day plants are tropical and subtropical with short sunshine hours, and most of the long-day plants are native to temperate and cold zones. China is located in the northern hemisphere, and most of the areas belong to the mid-latitudes. In the mid-latitude region, spring has long-day conditions and autumn has short-day conditions, so both LDP and SDP are distributed, and the length of sunshine varies seasonally in different latitudes.

 

LED grow lights and control systems

 

The photoperiod control is a dark state of light illumination within a day, and can be manually and automatically changed. The LED control technology has been controlled by the initial single constant current, and has been developed to the current thyristor dimming, PWM dimming, DMX512, DALI, ZigBee and other protocol dimming. The control mode has also evolved from the earliest line control technology to IR, FR, Wi-Fi short-range wireless control. The controller adopts an embedded structure, which can monitor the optical parameters in real time, communicate data with the remote server through the Internet, and the system can easily realize the shading time control.

 

Summary

Photoperiod control has the characteristics of environmental safety, low cost of LED grow lights and labor saving, and is easy to operate under agricultural facilities. Therefore, rational and effective use of the photoperiod can break the seasonal restrictions of factory-cultivated plants within a certain limit, and achieve anti-seasonal stimulation or inhibition, in order to achieve the purpose of efficient production of agricultural products. With the continuous development of science and technology, the understanding of the phenomenon of photoperiod will inevitably become more profound. The application of photoperiod-regulating plant flowering and breeding to the factory-based breeding industry will promote the steady and rapid development of facility agriculture and LED grow lighting application industry.

Passive cooling and active cooling of led lighting fixture

How to design the heat dissipation of 347v-480v LED high bay

The effect of heat on the LEDs

LEDs are sensitive to temperature and performance is greatly affected by ambient temperature. Mainly in the following three aspects:

1. Excessive junction temperature can cause LED performance degradation, especially life, light color and lumen output. If the rated maximum junction temperature is exceeded, the LED’s lifetime will drop by 30% to 50% for every 10 degrees increase in operating temperature.

2. When the junction temperature rises, it will also cause obvious color drift to the high end of the spectrum (wavelength becomes longer), which has a great influence on the “white light” LED light source. Most of the so-called “white light” LEDs actually emit blue light, which turns into white light after being converted by phosphors. When the temperature rises, the blue light drifts toward the red spectrum, and the effect of the phosphor changes, and as a result, the color tone of the final light changes.

3. The last major parameter affected by the LED thermal management system is the lumen output. Increasing the current increases the lumen output of the LED, but a large current also causes an increase in heat generation. Therefore, an optimal balance must be chosen between system performance and service life when determining the current value.

In summary, excessive heat directly affects the short- and long-term performance of LED sources:

• Short-term: color drift, reduced light output

• Long-term: accelerated light decay and reduced life

Therefore, in order to obtain long-life, high-performance LED lamps, it is necessary to design an excellent cooling and cooling system. Thermal management can be said to be the most important part in the design of LED lamps. Natural (passive) and manual (active) cooling systems are often used to dissipate heat.

 

Passive cooling and active cooling of led lighting fixture

Passive cooling (a. LED luminaires using heat sinks) and active cooling (b, LED luminaires using heat sinks and fans).

 

1 passive cooling:

“Passive” means that the system does not contain energy-consuming mechanical equipment such as heat pumps, fans or fans. The most common passive heat sink in LED luminaires is the heat sink. In general, the heat sink consists of a number of sets of metal segments that quickly conduct heat from the LED source. Since the heat sink itself does not consume energy, it is the most energy efficient cooling system. However, as the power of the LED light source increases, the heat dissipation area is required to be larger and larger, which requires the design of a heat sink having a complicated shape, which adversely affects the design of the lamp.

 

2 active cooling:

“Active” means that the cooling system contains energy-consuming mechanical equipment such as pumps, fans or fans. For small luminaires that use high-power, high-light-packaged LED light sources, an active cooling system is necessary because it allows for a smaller luminaire structure and size.

 

How to design a passive cooling system?

The most common type of LED luminaire is the passive cooling system. Several factors must be considered when designing such a system, such as the layout of the LED source, the properties of the luminaire material, the shape and surface treatment of the heat sink, and other factors described below.

 

1.347v-480v LED high bay layout spacing

Most of the energy consumed by the LED is converted into heat, and the tighter the LED particle layout, the less heat dissipation, and the higher the junction temperature. Therefore, the LED particles should be as large as possible under the conditions allowed by the package and optical characteristics.

led layout spacing

LEDs layout spacing

 

2.Material properties

Thermal conductivity is a physical quantity used to measure the efficiency of heat transfer. The thermal conductivity of a material reflects the thermal conductivity of the material. Some materials are good conductors of heat compared to other materials. For example, the thermal conductivity of pure copper is 400W/m.K, and the thermal conductivity of air is only 0.025W/m.K.

Aluminum is a common material for making heat sinks, not only because of its high cost performance, but also because of aluminum, easy processing, die casting, and extrusion. Another feature of the heat sink is the geometric shape, while the aluminum profile is easy to shape. In addition, aluminum has advantages such as light weight, corrosion resistance and good structural stability. In summary, aluminum is an excellent material for making heat sinks.

 

Material Thermal conductivity(W/m·k)
Stainless steel 12.11~45
Aluminium 237
Copper 401

 

3.shape

Convection is a fluid process that removes heat from the surface of a object by the flow of a gas or liquid. The larger the surface area, the more convection occurs. An example is the heat sink, which is designed to be the current shape to maximize the surface area of ​​the convection. This multi-bladed structure can greatly increase the surface area without changing the volume.

4.Surface treatment

The emissivity is a physical quantity that reflects the relative ability of the surface to radiate energy from the surface of the object, usually written as ε or e. It is defined as the ratio of the radiant energy of a material’s surface to the standard and the energy radiated by the black body at the same temperature. The ideal black body has ε=1, while the real material ε<1. High emissivity coatings increase the rate of heat exchange. Generally, the darker and darker the surface, the closer the emissivity is to one. The higher the reflectivity of the material, the closer the emissivity is to zero. Printed circuit board (PCB) LEDs are mounted on multi-layer FR4 or metal printed circuit boards (MCPCB). For best performance, the thermal resistance of the PCB should be as low as possible.

5.FR4 board (FR4 PCB)

FR4 is the standard material for making PCBs. The number of LED particles installed on each PCB depends on the LED input power and boundary conditions. The heat on the PCB is transferred to the heat dissipation system through the heat dissipation holes. These heat dissipation holes are plated through holes (PTH), which can be opened, blocked or closed. Finally, the thermal resistance of the entire board is determined by the number and density of the heat sink holes on the board, the thickness of the copper foil layer, and the plating thickness of the plated through holes.

6.Metal circuit board (MCPCB)

The following figure shows the structure of the MCPCB. An MCPCB board consists of a copper layer, an insulating layer and a heat sink, aluminum or copper. Increasing the thickness of the copper layer or thinning the thickness of the insulating layer can greatly reduce the thermal resistance.

 

7. Surface roughness

When the heat sink is connected to the packaged semiconductor, the two parts of the solid surface are required to be as close as possible. Unfortunately, no matter how well handled, the solid surface cannot be completely smooth. Due to the unevenness of the microstructure, all surfaces have a certain roughness. The presence of these small protrusions, small dimples or twisted shapes superimposes to form a rough, uneven surface visible to the naked eye. When two such surfaces are in contact, only the small protrusions on the two faces are actually in contact with each other, and the small cavities are still separated to form an air gap.

Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs), also known as thermal conductive materials, are used to increase the heat transfer coefficient between bonded solid surfaces, such as PCB boards and heat sinks, to improve heat dissipation efficiency. Because if not filled, the air-filled gap between the surfaces of the two mechanically joined materials can be a poor conductor of heat.

 

8.Thermal interface material

a) unfilled voids; b) TIMs material filling

The most common thermal interface materials are white or thermal paste. The most common is thermal grease, which is doped with alumina, zinc oxide or boron nitride. Some brands of thermal interface materials use finely ground silver powder. Another large class of thermal interface materials are phase change materials. These materials are solid at room temperature and liquefy at the working temperature of the chip.

 

9.Production Process

The most common technique for utilizing natural convection is to make several holes in the top and bottom of the package, allowing the airflow to pass up and down to dissipate heat from the LED. Compared to the two processes of die casting and extrusion, the aluminum profile treated by the extrusion process will be denser (making fewer bubbles inside the heat sink). Since the difference in thermal conductivity between air and aluminum is so large, a little bit of air residue can cause a significant change in the thermal conductivity of the material. The thermal conductivity of die-cast aluminum heat sinks is on average 20-30% lower than extruded aluminum heat sinks of the same volume and shape.

 

10.Shell design and installation method

When designing the LED housing, consider also leaving a thermal path from the PCB backplane to the enclosure. It is common practice to mount the back side of the PCB directly onto the LED housing to maximize contact between the two.

The improvement of this installation method is to add a heat conducting plate between the PCB board and the outer casing, and the heat conducting board can be better fitted with the PCB board to increase the contact area of ​​heat conduction.

Similarly, the most common technique for utilizing natural convection is to make several holes in the top and bottom of the package, allowing the airflow to pass up and down to dissipate heat from the LEDs.